Tuesday, August 25, 2020
A Comparative Review of Fredrick Taylor and Frank Gilbreths articles Frederick Taylor and Frank Gilbreths likenesses out of sight their disparities. They assisted with upsetting administration speculations. Utilizing three administration establishment course books I will establish an away from of information on what these two pioneers have given to the administration world. Likewise, in investigating these two scholars one may increase another gander at how productivity can be accomplished. Looking into these two scholars is basic in essential investigation the executives. A Comparative Review of Fredrick Taylor and Frank Gilbreths Management Theories Logical strategy had its first large impact on American economy by the Ford Company. In 1916 Henry Ford had the option to drastically diminish the cost of his autos by over $590. Utilizing the logical strategy this value decline just took two years to execute. In spite of the fact that Ford would preclude that the usage from claiming a sequential construction system to build yield and lessening work had no impact by a logical strategy, it could be straightforwardly contended this is really a flat out meaning of logical technique that were rehearsed and idealized by Fredrick Taylor and Frank Gilbreth. So as to totally comprehend Fredrick Taylor and Frank Gilbreths the executives speculations one should initially perceive how they identify with one another. The commitments of Taylor and Gilbreth have changed society for eternity. Key qualities gave by every scholar are still in play today. Frederick Taylor (1856-1917) experienced childhood in such an exacting family unit the at last pundits connected his craving for flawlessness to his past. As a youngster he looked for approaches to improve his games. Taylor was not the originator of a significant number of his thoughts, however was a realist with the capacity to incorporate crafted by others and elevate them adequately to a prepared and energetic crowd of mechanical supervisors who were endeavoring to discover new or improved approaches to expand execution. At the hour of Taylor's work, a commonplace administrator would have v... <!
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Work Economics - Essay Example Beside organic and social elements, industrialization has been pointed as the fundamental driver of disparity which began between the horticulture and the modern segments. As indicated by Williamson and Lindert (1980), the developments of the talented and untalented compensation proportions unmistakably mirror the inconsistent conveyance of riches especially among people. (Williamson and Lindert, 1980) Industrialization came about to a lesser interest for HR. This causes the expansion in rivalry among the laborers. The inconsistent assets, for example, the entrance to instruction between the rich and the less lucky individuals came about to a more extensive hole on the conveyance of riches between the two areas of the general public. This paper will talk about in subtleties the impacts of the imbalance in the appropriation of profit, pay, and riches among people as a family in contrast with the instance of single parents just as different factors, for example, the financial exhibition of the nation and the UK charge change. These variables could significantly influence the salary relaxation time of ladies. Then again, the utilization of Ã¢â¬ËIncome-Leisure Choice Theory modelÃ¢â¬â¢ could give us a superior attitude toward how functioning ladies or single parents regularly wind up working for longer hours The continually changing workplace has brought about the progressions of business designs among people over the previous decades. As indicated by OEDC Ã¢â¬ Employment Outlook, the quantity of ladies investment in the corporate world has continually expanding; while the men ceaselessly declining. In particular, the sexual orientation wage holes among people as far as their middle income are wide. (See Table I Ã¢â¬ Gender Gap in Median Earnings of Full-time Employees in 2004 beneath and Graph I Ã¢â¬ Gender Wage Gaps on page 5) Since the winning holes among people are very large, ladies particularly the individuals who are single
Monday, July 27, 2020
Living in Random Hall Pre Dorm Assignment Hi! Welcome to my comprehensive documentation of my time here in Random Hall. I realized that when I was browsing the blogposts, I didnt really find a lot of recent content on Random (because Lydia was our main source of Random content) and I feel like that was partly the reason I didnt really come to discover the quirky little dorm until the last day of CPW. So, Ive decided to try and take on the reigns and show my process to finding, moving in to, and living in Random Hall! Its a mixture of the move-in process as well as just little, fun anecdotes Ive collected over my time here in Random. Pre Dorm Assignment Moments after I was admitted to MIT, I rushed into a call with my boyfriend and did the first reasonable thing any excited prefrosh would do: I started researching dorms. Its relatively well known that, in addition to MITs fervent love for STEM and wacky architecture, theres a large presence of dorm culture at MIT. In fact, it was one of the major factors of me applying and then later choosing to attend MIT. I wanted a school with some amount of school pride, whether that be in their sports, their history, or even just their living situations. After hours of going through i3 videos01 Videos that students create that advertise their respective dorm culture to prospective residents , I finally settled on my future home for life: East Campus. But then I didnt. Because I changed my mind again in January and chose my final destination, my home of homes: MacGregor. And then February: McCormick. March: But what about Next?? In fact, I spiraled through all the possible dorm options for me, excluding one: Random. In my efforts to research every single dorm possible, I ended up neglecting Random Hall, for no particular reason whatsoever. I actually think I didnt register it was a dorm on the MIT Guide to Residence page and thought it was a hyperlink that randomized the page you landed on. Go figure. Then came CPW, where I experienced an event that would change my living situation decision forever: The Random Hall Nekomimi Cat Cafe. My friends and I saw the event on the CPW schedule and knew we had to go. I remember the walk down Mass Ave and thinking to myself How far is this place? To people who dont actually know what Random looks like, chances are youll miss it on your first initial walkthrough. I actually did. It took us a couple of minutes to realize we had missed 290 Mass Ave and we awkwardly backtracked until we stood in front of the looming, doughnut-like structure before us. We entered, quietly and sheepishly telling the front desk we were here for the Nekomimi Cat Cafe event, to which they buzzed us in. We were greeted by upperclassmen dressed in maid costumes paired with cat ears and tails. They told us the food was still cooking and offered us an impromptu tour of Random Hall, which we gladly accepted. And I. Fell. In. Love. I wont go in to too much detail of the tour since its so much better to do go tour yourself, but Ill just name a few key features that made me choose Random over every other dorm: Singles, size, and cost. Aside from being the cheapest on campus dorm, there are about 12 people to each floor on Random. Its 10 singles and 2 doubles per floor. This was Very Appealing to my introverted, privacy-needing self. Three to four refrigerators per floor. Glorious, glorious food. CATS CATS CATS. The second floor allows cats! here are the current loop cats: she looks cute but shes a demon evie (evadne) being a cutie pie An arrow pointing right Previous An arrow pointing right Next Mural painting. Random Hall is full of beautiful murals and room decor. loop mascot! the map of world memes! i don't go up to bonfire enough but this one is so cool when you see the Things, Don't say anything, just comment a ;) god i love this floor whenever i use the bathroom late at night on clam and turn to my right, i see this! it's terrifying! this one is right outside my door! you can see mariia's FSM. this tree has lots of easter eggs try and see if you can find them i walk by this one a Lot An arrow pointing right Previous An arrow pointing right Next Roofdeck. Random has a roofdeck that is not only beautiful, but allows for movies to be projected onto the building next to them that allows us to have fun, super cool movie nights. Peapod. Random Hall utilizes a grocery delivery system, where you can order your groceries online and theyll be delivered to the dorm once a week for free. The culture. Every floor has a relatively distinct culture. Loop being the quiet floor, Clam loud and into gaming and anime and Ive also overheard some kpop there too, Pecker math and experimental baking, etc. The people. Cheesy, I know, but in that brief tour of Random, I met some of the kindest, nicest people. Everyone was so welcoming and so kind even though we just kind of barged into their home and asked for an unplanned tour. After the tour, we all sat down in Foo and had some really delicious curry and I knew my mind had been made. When the housing forms came along, I submitted Random Hall as my first choice. Post-Dorm Assignment, Pre-Room Assignment Around early August, our housing forms were returned to us and I, unsurprisingly, was dormed in Random. I kind of knew I would be placed in Random since its a relatively small, unknown dorm that many people dont put as their first priority, unlike Maseeh or Simmons. And then the cycle repeated itself. I called my boyfriend at the time and started researching all of the floors I could possibly live on. Should I live on the queerest, coolest, edgiest floor: Black Hole? Or should I go a bit nerdier with Pecker? But what about B O N F I R E? But what kind of room do I want? A 1-Room? A 5-Room? What about a 3-Room? I ultimately decided I wanted to live on Clam, the loudest, rowdiest, coolest bunch of people youll ever meet. And I wanted a single. I knew that for a fact. Post-Dorm Assignment, Post-Temp-Room Assignment But then. Room 212. I was placed in a double on Loop. I remember anxiously looking up my roommates name, feeling incredible f e a r. For a bit more context: On the Myer-Briggs test, I placed as an INFJ, scoring about 84% introverted on the extrovert-introvert scale. The prospect of having a roommate terrified me. What if they didnt like me? What if they didnt respect my privacy? What if I did something they didnt like? It became panic on top of panic on top of panic. And then I was on Loop, one of the two all women floors in Random. Another flash of panic.02 More context: I didnt really have a lot of girl friends, as I hung out mainly with guys for most of my life for reasons unknown to me. Its not that I didnt know how to hang out with girls. I love girls and I love women empowerment, but also most of the friends Ive had that are girls havent been very longlasting friendships. Would it be like a sorority? I dont want to live in a sorority. But MIT sororities arent like other sororities? But large groups of women are still scary? WHAT IF THEY DONT LIKE ME? AND THEY TALK BEHIND MY BACK?? At this point, Im basically freaking out because my whole Random Hall Clam single room plan was botched. Move In Day I arrived to Cambridge on August 19th, but didnt actually move in to Random until August 20th. My mom and I had Lyfted to Random Hall with my two unbelievably heavy and overpacked 50-pound bags, which seemed fine, until I remembered that Random Hall has no elevators. Luckily, the move in committee was sitting outside Random to help me move my bags in. I entered on the 290 side, where I got my room key from the desk at Foo and was led by Mark, a graduate student tutor (GRT), to my room. Navigating Random at first was difficult. Random Hall has two sides. 290 and 282. Only the first and third floors are connected so if you want to go from Loop (second floor on the 282 side) to Black Hole (second floor on the 290 side), you either have to go up to the third floor, around and come back down, go to the first floor and do the same process, or go to the basement and roofdeck and do the same. Mark led me up to BMF (on the third floor) and we walked through a narrow corridor to get to Clam, from where we descended down the stairs and entered kitchen-side to Loop, where lo and behold, was my room. I tentatively entered, unsure whether Mariia was inside or not. She arrived a couple days prior to me due to international student orientation happening on August 15th. Luckily, the room was empty. I saw she had claimed the first bunk and a bookshelf and desk for herself. I began to unpack. A couple hours later I didnt actually run into Mariia until I took my friends (the same ones from the CPW!! yes! I kept my friend group!! Its possible!!) to the Random Hall Roofdeck Movie Marathon. The movie had already started so I had to awkwardly Naruto-run across the roofdeck to try and not impair anyones vision, when I heard a whispered Cami!! And I turned and saw Mariia, who I recognized because of Facebook stalking but also because we exchanged a couple of friendly emails. We unfortunately didnt talk, but it was nice to put a voice to the face. The first two weeks (FPOP + REX) My roommate and floor woes were eased when upperclassmen explained the rooming process to me. Rooms given to the frosh were only temporary rooms. A couple days before official room assignment day are given to us to explore more of the floors and figure things about. Then, we would fill out a google form and would be matched with a room. Having never cooked for myself before or ever done laundry before, I was very, very nervous. I was living off of food from my FPOP, Discover Product Design, which provided breakfast, lunch, and dinner for the entirety of the week-long program. (Shout out DPD, I should probably do a blogpost on FPOPs eventually.) This is also the place where I befriended Aiden, who would eventually become one of my closest friends here at MIT. I held fun, but brief, conversations with Mariia trying to get to know her a bit because I was intimidated out of my mind by her in the first week. She was a super duper cool international student from Ukraine with an interest in energy, sustainability, and mechanical engineering. She usually arrived back to the dorm in the wee early hours of the morning so I didnt really see her around much. But we then started to talk more and more and I realized that she was not scary at all. I mean, she was scarily smart and talented, but in terms of actual personality, she was one of the nicest people Ive ever had the pleasure of befriending. I realized that having a roommatewasnt all that bad. Ill spare you the details of friendship development and the raising of our little green friendship bar like in the Sims, but we ultimately decided that we loved our room and we loved each other and we wanted to stay in the same room. At this point, I had already explored the other floors and didnt really feel the need to move around. Funnily enough, Loop seemed to best fit my personality and wants in a living space perfectly. Loop is a party floor Historically, Loop is known as the quiet floor in Random Hall. Quiet hours were around 10pm, as most of the floor was asleep by 11pm. Floor culture consisted of tea drinking and crocheting and Loop rarely had any non-Loop residents on the floor aside from the typical cat tourism. It was overall a very wholesome experience. Until five frosh moved onto the floor. Okay, so Im not saying Im proud of this but I will say Im pleased because us frosh have literally slowly, but surely, changed the culture on Loop. Average sleep time changed from 10pm to somewhere between 12am and 3am. We (respectfully) play music on speakers from time to time. Mariia and I often brought our friends over to hang out and pset. If I had a dollar for every time an upperclassman has told me It was not like this last year. Well, I could probably buy myself multiple one-dollar candy bars. Regardless, it was somewhat gratifying to see how us frosh do have some power to alter the culture of a floor. Of course, we still abide to rules and Loop is still the neatest and cleanliest floor in all of Random, if not the entire campus. I jokingly refer to Loop culture as holesome, where we still maintain some semblance of good wholesome activities but when those late night hour hits its all over for Loop and us five frosh (mainly me, Aiden, Caroline, and Mariia. Melissa and Thao are the good frosh. And I know you might be saying: But wait Cami! Thats six frosh you just named? And one of them is a guy? Isnt Loop an all girls floor? Just wait til the next section, buddy.) My double becomes a triple My friend group is heavily scattered across campus. Aiden lived in Next, Aidan lives in Simmons, Emma lives in BC, and well, Raymonds just in Destiny (the first floor in Random on the 282 side.) They would all often visit Random at least 3-4 times a week, with us switching off to spend time in either Simmons or BC accordingly. But it got to the point where Aiden, who lives the farthest away, would stay the latest at Random. At first, we just told him to crash here and sleep on the lounge sofas or kitchen sofas. Sure, thats fine. After repeating this two more times, one of the upperclassmen came to me and told me that he should probably sleep in a room, as to not scare the floor residents when they seem a random man repeatedly sleeping on their sofas. So, Mariia and I inflated one of the two air mattresses we received (for free from hosting two people at HackMIT!!!) and told Aiden, This is your Home. At that point, Aiden practically lived here. He had spent more time on Random than he had ever spent in Next. He repeatedly cooked meals for the floor, jokingly deeming himself The Loop Meal Plan. Floor residents tended to him and Loved him and appreciated him. He was even added to the Snoop 2019-2020 group chat, after being given cabinet and fridge space. He soon gained the title of Resident Male on Loop, a title previously held by Mike (someone before us froshes time.) Snoop became a thing because Emily decided to start putting Sn at the beginning of every word ever which is why we are now Snoop. There is also a snoop snailing snist and if you are ever on Snoop, you will find instances of this Sn language everywhere. Snits snuirky. (Its quirky.) Eventually, there became an opportunity for Snaiden to switch into Random permanently, and so Snaiden now happily sleeps on Black Hole, but he still Lives in Snoop, cooking, cleaning, and studying here. In fact, Snariia and I still have his air mattress inflated not only because we miss our son, but because he sometimes just crashes here in general. Our room has been a triple, quad, and even quint throughout the semester, and honestly? I wouldnt have it any other way. The Present This blogpost has been in my drafts for a little under two months. Words cannot describe how much I love and appreciate Loop, but Ill really try my best. Im sitting at my first home in California for Thanksgiving break and all Ive been able to think about is how much I miss Random Hall. I miss walking out of my double to be greeted by Tafsia and Nadia sitting at the kitchen table, bantering and laughing and teasing. I miss the smell of Thaos heavenly cooking that wafts through kitchen side every morning and evening. I miss being greeted by Miss Devil Cat Zella and having her wildly run around kitchen to get rid of her zoomies. I miss Michaye leading her cult of Crocheters, as they sit in lounge furiously crocheting with The Mandalorian playing in the background. I did not expect to end up here at all. I did not expect Loop to literally house all of my friends. I did not expect to grow so attached to a place so quickly. Even now, surrounded by my family by blood and the TV blaring this Ohio State Michigan game, I cant help but think of my family back at MIT, who are probably either at the Z or sitting in kitchen crocheting Secret Santa gifts for each other. I dont know when this turned into a love letter to literally all of Loop but if one of you all happen to read this: Living on Loop has changed my life. And I know I say that about a lot of things here, but the MIT experience is very lifechanging! I arrived as a scared, nervous frosh that was accepted and adopted by this great community of strong and intelligent women. Theyve all helped me in one way or another, whether its helping me choose what classes to take, giving me some Big Hard Live Advice at 2 in the morning, or even just showing me how to use the dishwasher. I think overall its clear to say that our expectations are much different than the reality. When I was first accepted to MIT, I thought Id live in a pretty single in EC. Then I thought Id live in a cramped triple in Next. Even after I got into Random, I was determined to live on a single in Clam. And now Im here, on Loop, a floor that I love. The best part of Random Hall is not our roofdeck, or our numerous amount of fridges, or our plethora of signs and murals. The best part, for me at least, is knowing that at the end of the day I get to walk down Mass Ave, past Saloniki, past Beantown, past MIT Museum, and turn to an unassuming stack of doughnuts, enter those doors, and walk into a home. If youve never considered or even looked at Random before, I suggest you do. It could end up being the perfect place for you. I know it is for me. Please enjoy these pictures of Loop from my friend group: i swear there's context behind these quotes. once again, i swear there's context for these quotes. zoom in and try and read some of the sentences. spot the floorcest (yes it's aiden and caroline i love my friends they're so cute) ~male essence aiden padilla~ An arrow pointing right Previous An arrow pointing right Next Videos that students create that advertise their respective dorm culture to prospective residents back to text ? More context: I didn't really have a lot of girl friends, as I hung out mainly with guys for most of my life for reasons unknown to me. It's not that I didn't know how to hang out with girls. I love girls and I love women empowerment, but also most of the friends I've had that are girls haven't been very longlasting friendships. back to text ?
Friday, May 22, 2020
The Tenure of Office Act, a law passed by the U.S. Congress over the veto of President Andrew Johnson on March 2, 1867, was an early attempt to restrict the power of the executive branch. It required the president of the United States to get the SenateÃ¢â¬â¢s consent to fire any cabinet secretary or another federal official whose appointment had been approved by the Senate. When President Johnson defied the act, the political power struggle led to AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s first presidential impeachment trial. Key Takeaways: Tenure of Office Act The Tenure of Office Act of 1867 required the President of the United States to get the approval of the Senate in order to remove cabinet secretaries or other presidentially-appointed officials from office.Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act over the veto of President Andrew Johnson.President JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s repeated attempts to defy the Tenure of Office Act led to a narrowly-failed attempt to remove him from office through impeachment.Though it had been repealed in 1887, the Tenure of Office Act was declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1926. Background and Context When President Johnson took office on April 15, 1865, presidents had the unrestricted power to fire appointed government officials. However, controlling both houses of Congress at the time, Radical Republicans created the Tenure of Office Act to protect members of JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s cabinet who sided with them in opposing the Democratic presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Southern secessionist state-friendly reconstruction policies. Specifically, the Republicans wanted to protect Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, who had been appointed by Republican President Abraham Lincoln. Johnson (1808-1875) was Abraham Lincolns vice-president and succeeded Lincoln as president after his assassination. (Photo by The Print Collector/Print Collector/Getty Images) As soon as Congress enacted the Tenure of Office Act over his veto, President Johnson defied it by trying to replace Stanton with General of the Army Ulysses S. Grant. When the Senate refused to approve his action, Johnson persisted, this time trying to replace Stanton with Adjutant General Lorenzo Thomas. Now fed up with the situation, the Senate rejected the Thomas appointment and on February 24, 1868, the House voted 126 to 47 to impeach President Johnson. Of the eleven articles of impeachment voted against Johnson, nine cited his repeated defiance of the Tenure of Office Act in trying to replace Stanton. Specifically, the House charged Johnson with bringing into Ã¢â¬Å"disgrace, ridicule, hatred, contempt, and reproach the Congress of the United States.Ã¢â¬ Johnsons Impeachment Trial The Senate impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson began on March 4, 1868, and lasted 11 weeks. Senators arguing to convict and remove Johnson from office struggled with one major question: Had Johnson actually violated the Tenure of Office Act or not? The wording of the act was unclear. Secretary of War Stanton had been appointed by President Lincoln and had never been officially re-appointed and confirmed after Johnson took over. While by its wording, the Tenure Act clearly protected office holders appointed by current presidents, it only protected Cabinet secretaries for one month after a new president took office. Johnson, it appeared, may have been acting within his rights in removing Stanton. During the lengthy, often contentious trial, Johnson also took shrewd political steps to appease his congressional accusers. First, he promised to support and enforce the RepublicansÃ¢â¬â¢ Reconstruction policies and to stop giving his notoriously fiery speeches attacking them. Then, he arguably saved his presidency by appointing General John M. Schofield, a man well respected by most Republicans, as the new Secretary of War. Whether influenced more by the ambiguity of the Tenure Act or JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s political concessions, the Senate allowed Johnson to remain in office. On May 16, 1868, the then 54 Senators voted 35 to 19 to convict JohnsonÃ¢â¬âjust one vote short of the two-thirds Ã¢â¬Å"supermajorityÃ¢â¬ vote necessary to remove the president from office. Illustration (by JL Magee), entitled The Man That Blocks Up the Highway, depicts President Andrew Johnson as he stands in front of a log barrier, labeled Veto, while various men with carriages titled Freedmens Bureau, Civil Rights, and Reconstruction are barred from crossing, 1866. Library of Congress / Interim Archives / Getty Images Tough he was allowed to remain in office, Johnson spent the rest of his presidency issuing vetoes of Republican reconstruction bills, only to see Congress swiftly override them. The uproar over the Tenure of Office Act impeachment along with JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s continued attempts to obstruct reconstruction angered voters. In the 1868 presidential electionÃ¢â¬âthe first since the abolition of slaveryÃ¢â¬âRepublican candidate General Ulysses S. Grant defeated Democrat Horatio Seymour. Constitutional Challenge and Repeal Congress repealed the Tenure of Office Act in 1887 after President Grover Cleveland argued that it violated the intent of the Appointments Clause (Article II, Section 2) of the U.S. Constitution, which he said granted the president the sole power to remove presidential appointees from office. The question of the Tenure ActÃ¢â¬â¢s constitutionality lingered until 1926 when the U.S. Supreme Court, in the case of Myers v. United States, ruled it unconstitutional. The case arose when President Woodrow Wilson removed Frank S. Myers, a Portland, Oregon postmaster, from office. In his appeal, Myers argued that his firing had violated a provision of the 1867 Tenure of Office Act which stated, Ã¢â¬Å"Postmasters of the first, second, and third classes shall be appointed and may be removed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate.Ã¢â¬ The Supreme Court ruled 6-3 that while the Constitution does provide for how non-elected officials are to be appointed, it does not mention how they should be dismissed. Instead, the court found that the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s power to dismiss his own executive branch staff was implied by the Appointments Clause. Accordingly, the Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬ânearly 60 years laterÃ¢â¬âruled that the Tenure of Office Act had violated the constitutionally established separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches. Sources and Further Reference Ã¢â¬Å"Tenure of Office Act.Ã¢â¬ Corbis. History.com.Ã¢â¬Å"The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson.Ã¢â¬ (March 2, 1867). American Experience: Public Broadcasting System.Ã¢â¬Å"An Act regulating the Tenure of certain Federal Offices.Ã¢â¬ (March 2, 1867). HathiTrust Digital Library
Saturday, May 9, 2020
As of the second century, A.D., the Roman Empire measured nearly 3,000 miles from east to west and nearly 2,000 miles from north to south, with its total land area approximately one-half of the continental United States. Its population at this time, at its peak under Augustus, had increased from 50 million to as high as 70 million. At the time, only the empire of China had a populous that paralleled with the Roman Empire, and no other human group under a single government was as large as these two. The era of Ã¢â¬Å"decline and fallÃ¢â¬ began with the death of Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 180, in which the great age of the Pax Romana ended. There was evidence from scholars who have written hundreds of volumes on the problems the empire faced,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Rivals contested him as the ruler, however, he was relentless and reigned for some twenty years before voluntarily retiring to a palace at Split, in his native of Illyria (modern Croatia). When DiocletianÃ¢â¬â¢s guiding hand was removed, years of dreary fighting amongst rulers ensued, Constantine I emerged as the sole winner. By 324, he had disposed of all rivals, and for a brief period there was again, one empire and one emperor. Unlike Diocletian, Constantine ordered complete freedom of worship throughout the territories under his control (Edict of Milan) This was the beginning of the adoption of Christianity by the empire, however, it could not solve the immediate problems it encountered: rivalries and warfare among emperors and would-be emperors, the threat of barbarian invasions and the economic decline of the West. The destruction of the West was also due to high taxation and rising prices, which by the third century, turned the prosperous cities of the early empire to heavily fortified outposts whose citizens had lost all real self-government. Fortunately, due to the reforms of Diocletian and Constantine, the empire held off barbarian attacks for the most of the fourth century. There was brutal warfare between the Romans and their barbarian neighbors, however they were becoming similar in nature. After the Visigoths were permitted in 376 to be permitted to be admitted to Roman territory and being ruthlessly oppressed by corrupt romanShow MoreRelatedThe Decline Of The Fall Of Rome963 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDuring the Fifth Century A.D. in Rome things began to change. One of the things that changed was the political power. At the beginning of the Fifth Century Rome was ruled by twelve different emperors (Lendering, J. 2002). Another thing that changed during this time period was Rome s economy. The economics changed because there were not as many people to do the work that needed to be done (Andrews. 2014). The last thing that contributed to the fall of Rome was the sociocultural factors. 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There was not any single cause to the fall of Rome. It was many things occurring in succession to each other. After the Punic wars with Carthage, Rome acquired many new lands that it did not have before. During peace times it was easy to govern these areas but during war times it proved difficult. The government had to pay soldiersRead MoreThe Fall Of Rome And The Roman Empire1435 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLength: 1398 words (4 double-spaced pages) Rating: Red (FREE) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The Fall of Rome Did the Roman Empire deserve to Fall? No, The achievements of the Roman Empire were unmatched at its time. Many things it accomplished are ideas and ways of life that did not become widespread until after its fall. The Roman Empire would have made the advancement of people in Europe much faster. The Roman Empire was the most modern ancientRead MoreThe Fall Of Rome s Collapse1199 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEvan Reilly Professor Latham Western Civ 1 12 December 2015 The Fall of Rome For hundreds of years the empire of Rome and its citizens fought with neighboring territories and expanded their territory until they had created a vast empire which included much of modern day Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. Although many historians and professors claim the fall of the Roman empire was because of excess and corruption, invasions by barbarian tribes, military overspending, economic problemsRead MoreFall of Rome DBQ Essay815 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Fall of Rome The great Roman Empire expanded across all of Europe and into the Middle East. Its military was one of the finest. With major trading in Africa and Britain, the economy flourished with brining many citizens a healthy income. With amazing advancements in culture and technology, Roman society was at its finest. During the Pax Romana, the Romans had 200 years of peace and good ruling by level headed dictators and emperors. Despite RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s greatness in all of these areas, Rome wouldRead MoreThe Fall Of Rome Roman Empire905 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1:03 PM The Fall of Rome The Western Roman Empire was once at the pinnacle of civilisation, widely regarded as one of the largest empires in history. Their extreme wealth made them the pioneers in warfare, medicine, architecture, politics, culture and philosophy. At its peak in 117 AD, it spanned over 5,000,000 square kilometres, and had a population of almost 57,000,000 people. In spite of its sheer power and level of innovation, The Western Roman Empire fell in 476 AD. The fall of the WesternRead MoreDid Rome ever Fall?504 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesThe Ã¢â¬Å"Fall of RomeÃ¢â¬ is a popular phase used by many critics in an attempt to explain how and when exactly the Roman Empire fell apart. Scholars however fail in providing an accurate and reasonable event for when the Roman Empire truly fell. Did Rome ever truly fall? The Roman Empire encountered many economic problems, faced a lot of political instability, and gained many new religions within its society. As time went on, it transformed and gained a new id entity. However, the true Roman Empire, itÃ¢â¬â¢s
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(83) " stated that it was the Russians who Ã¢â¬Å"tore the heart out of the German army\." Superpower Relations 1943-1991 The Breakdown of the Wartime Alliance The Breakdown of the wartime alliance Although allies, cracks were already appearing in the Soviet-American alliance by 1945. Stalin was particularly suspicious of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s policy before the war of appeasement, which he thought aimed secretly to encourage Hitler to attack Russia. He was also unhappy with the US/British failure to open up a second front in Europe before June 1944. We will write a custom essay sample on Breakdown of Wartime Alliance or any similar topic only for you Order Now On the other hand the British and Americans were worried about Soviet troops in Eastern Europe and their failure to help the Warsaw Uprising against the Nazis. The question remained- would the USA and USSR remain friends following the removal of the one factor which kept them united- the defeat of Germany? [pic] American and Russian troops meet at Torgau on the Elbe, 25th April 1945 World War Two: K/W/L Grid What do I know about WW2? (complete at start of What do I want to know? What have I learnt? lesson) (complete at start of lesson) (complete at end of lesson using the following pages). The war in Russia was to change the course of World War Two in Europe. In June 1941, World War Two witnessed what was then the largest land attack in historyÃ -Ã¢â¬ËOperation BarbarossaÃ¢â¬â¢. A vast Nazi force used Blitzkrieg to devastating effect on the Russian Army. Hitler had long made it clear that he hated the Russians and that war between the two countries was inevitable. The Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 had only delayed what Hitler was apparently planning even when the Battle of Britain was at its height. He believed that the Russians were sub-human (the Ã¢â¬ËuntermenschenÃ¢â¬â¢ ) and that they had no right to live where they did. That they were East European was compounded by the fact that Russia was communist and led by Joseph Stalin. Hitler hated communism and Stalin. Hitler wanted all the land in Eastern Europe to be given to Germans as they, Hitler believed, could farm it properly while East Europeans could not. Also many Jews lived in Russia (also known as the USSR at this time) and Hitler wanted them exterminated. In August 1939, Hitler and Russia had signed a treaty of non-aggression which was meant to last for 10 years. However, for both countries the treaty was merely to buy time to get their armies into shape before one attacked the other. Hitler wished to stabilise his western frontier before turning east. Stalin desperately needed to reform his army after the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s putches when his senior officers had been effectively wiped out either by imprisonment or execution. In June 1941 Operation Barbarossa took place Ã¢â¬â a massive attack by the Germans on Russia. HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s senior commanders had advised that the bulk of the German attack should be concentrated on Moscow. Two smaller armies would target Leningrad and Stalingrad and engage the enemy. These two armies would then be helped by the troops in the main bulk once Moscow had surrendered. They felt that once the heart of the nation had been cut out, the rest of the country would fall. Hitler would not have this. He did not believe that the Russian army was a match for the Wehrmacht and decided on three equal forces attacking Moscow, Leningrad and Stalingrad. As always, he got his way. The German attack on Russia involved: 3 million soldiers, Ã 3580 tanks,Ã 7184 artillery guns,Ã 1830 planesÃ Ã 750,000 horsesÃ The Russian army collapsed under this onslaught and the attack was initially incredibly successful. Moscow was nearly reached, Leningrad was surrounded and the oil fields in the south were swiftly approached. But it had one main failing and that was created by Hitler himself. As the Russians pulled back (retreated) they destroyed anything that might be of use to the German army as it advanced Ã¢â¬â bridges, railways, buildings etc. and poisoned water supplies. This policy was known as Ã¢â¬Å"scorched earthÃ¢â¬ and it was not expected by the Germans and severely hindered their armies. The supply lines of the German army stretched from Germany through Poland and into Russia itself Ã¢â¬â a huge distance to defend and control. These supply lines were attacked by guerrillas called partisans who did a considerable amount of damage to the German army and caused major shortages. The winter of 1941-42 was one of the worst in recorded history. Daily temperatures fell to 40 degrees below zero. German soldiers had not been issued with warm winter clothing as Hitler believed that the invasion would be over by the winter. Soldiers froze to death in their sleep, diesel froze in fuel tanks and food was in very short supply. Russian soldiers had been issued with winter clothing and did not suffer as badly as their German enemies. The defeat of an entire German army at Stalingrad was a disaster for the Germans and some historians consider this battle the turning point of World War Two because the German army could now only go in one direction and that was back to Germany. However, while the army was fighting the Russian army, soldiers from the SS Einsatzgruppen murdered hundreds of thousands of civilians. This was all part of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s plan to get rid of Ã¢â¬Ësub-humansÃ¢â¬â¢ from Europe. It is thought that as many as 20 million Russians died during the war. The slaughter was so great that Himmler believed that the policy of shooting civilians might disturbed those doing the killing. A direct result of this was the order to find a quicker way of murdering the people of Russia and the idea of death factories developed from this which lead to the Holocaust. However, from a military point of view, the defeat of the Germans by the Russians was vital to the Allies overall victory in Europe. Over two-thirds of the German army was in the Russian war and its defeat meant that the Allies in the west (GB, France and USA) had more chance of success against a smaller force. Winston Churchill stated that it was the Russians who Ã¢â¬Å"tore the heart out of the German army. You read "Breakdown of Wartime Alliance" in category "Essay examples" Ã¢â¬ What was the war like for the people in Russia and for the German soldiers? From a German soldier who fought in Russia : Ã¢â¬Å"Do you know how we behaved to the civilians? We behaved like devils out of Hell. We left those poor villagers to starve to death, thousands and thousands of them. How can you win a war in this way? We shoot villagers on the slightest excuse. Just stick them up against a wall. We order the whole village out to watch. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a vicious circle. We hate them and they hate us, and on and on it goes, everyone getting more inhuman. The civilians were all ready to look on us as saviours. They had had years of oppression from the communists. What did we do? Turn into slaves under Hitler. If the Russians should ever pay back one half of what we have done, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t smile or sing again. We were quartered (living) in a house outside the town. Our dwelling for the night was a wooden house occupied by a Russian family of five children and an old grandmother. We were bitten by fleas all night. We pened our tins and made coffee, sharing what we had with the children and the old woman. The man of the house was a soldier and the mother had been taken away to dig trenches. The children all had protruding bellies of long-term malnutrition. The reality is that after 22 years of Communist rule, a salted fish is the height of luxury. How this country depresses me. Ã¢â¬ From a soldier who fought in southern Russia : Ã¢â¬Å"I watched my mother and father die. I knew perfectly well that they were starving. But I wanted their bread more than I wanted them to stay alive. And they knew that. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what I remember about the blockade (of Leningrad): that feeling that you wanted your parents to die because you wanted their bread. Daily rationing quotas for the people of Leningrad in November 1941 Ã Labourer Child of Eight Bread 252g 128g Fat 19g 17g Meat 49g 14g Cereals 49g 39g Sugar 49g 39g Factor 1: Communism and Capitalism One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio; fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms. A speech by President Truman of the US (1947) Read Waugh and Wright page 10 1. Complete the following table to explain the differences between the two political systems [ideologies]: Communism Capitalism Political System Only one political party Ã¢â¬â the communist party Ã¢â¬â No choice, Unable toSeveral Parties Ã¢â¬â voters may choose and change their change their government. government Economic ideas NO private industries or businesses, NO private profit, ALL industry Most industry and businesses privately owned . and businesses owned by the state for the benefit of everyone. State intervention Censorship of media, State run economy , no choice in a government. NO real state intervention, free market Freedoms NO FREEDOM Freedom of speech, freedom to watch, read, listen to whatever you want. Freedom to own your own business 2. What was meant by the term Ã¢â¬ËCold WarÃ¢â¬â¢? Read Waugh and Wright pages 8-9 Answer: The Cold War was a phrase used to describe the rivalry and tension between the Superpowers- USA and USSR after 1945. The Cold War had several defining featuresÃ¢â¬ ¦ Now add some brief detail about the following aspects: Different ideologies Capitalism is a way of life that you are free to do as you wish but communism, you are kept to strictlawsEconomic rivalry In Capitalism you are free to own your own business but in Communism all businesses aremonitored by the statePropaganda Both sides used propaganda to create the worst possible image of the other sideArms Race Each side wanted more weapons and newer technologies than the otherSpace race At first it was only to launch the first satellite, then the first man in space and finally first man onthe moonSpying Both sides spied on each other. This was to find out any military developments3. What was meant by the term Ã¢â¬ËSuperpowerÃ¢â¬â¢? Read Waugh and Wright page 9 Now have a go at a definition yourself: A super power is a country or an group of countries (Empire) that is very powerful and they havethe best economies and have the most advanced technologies and weapons like the atomic bomb,missiles, etc.Factor 2: Rivalry before 1945 Read Waugh and Wright pages 10-15 During the 1920s and 1930s US and Soviet contact with each other was limited. However both sides viewed each other with suspicion. Though the USA did not feel directly threatened by the USSR there had been Ã¢â¬Ëred scaresÃ¢â¬â¢ in America in the early 1920s- Americans feared that immigrants from Russia and Eastern Europe might bring with them socialist ideas and attempt to persuade the American working class to mount a revolution. The origins of McCarthyism predate World War Two! Make notes on the following points of tension: a. The Russian Civil War The Bolsheviks led by Lenin seized control of the Government and in the following yearsIntroduced Communism to the countryb. British foreign policy [appeasement] before World War Two British foreign policy was to avoid war in Europe at allCostsRussian cartoon comments on Munich c. Rivalry during World War Twod. The Tehran ConferenceExam Technique Part A Question Ã¢â¬â DESCRIBE Advice: Write about ONE decision or reason or consequence. Write two sentences- one which makes the point and a second which develops it with some factual detail. Describe one decision made by the allies about the war against Germany at the Tehran conference in 1943 (2) Point: One Decision made by the allies about the war against Germany wasDevelopment:Factor 3: Yalta, Crimea [USSR] 4th-11th February 1945 a. Who were the key figures in the wartime alliance system and what were their aims? Read Waugh and Wright pages 14-15 [pic] 1. Complete the table below explaining each leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s aims and attitudes at Yalta: [pic] [pic] [pic] Winston Churchill Franklin Delano Roosevelt Joseph Stalin b. The Yalta Meeting: Agreements and Disagreements The aims of the three war leaders were different, both aiming to combine the security of their own country with the ideal of European stability. Stalin wanted to create a buffer of pro-Soviet states to protect the Soviet Union against any potential attack from the West, something which Roosevelt and Churchill were firmly against. Poland, being the largest country in Eastern Europe, was likely to set the pattern for the rest of the region, and it was on this matter that the allies met in February 1945, at Yalta. Two different political groups had emerged: London Poles Lublin Poles This was the Polish government of 1939 which had spent the war years in This was a Ã¢â¬Ëgovernment in waitingÃ¢â¬â¢. Stalin had established this group of exile in London. They continued to meet despite the fact that Poland was Polish communists in the city of Lublin after its liberation from the Nazis. occupied by the Nazis. Stalin hoped to place the Lublin Poles into government in Warsaw. They were anti-communist, and wanted Poland to remain independent and free from Soviet control. The Red Army was the first to reach Poland, and as it approached in August 1944, Polish resistance fighters had begun an uprising against the German occupying troops in Warsaw, the capital. They counted on the support of the nearby Red Army, but also believed that by taking the initiative they could ensure the leadership of the London Poles. The Red Army did nothing to help and the rebellion was mercilessly crushed by the Germans. 300 000 Poles were killed. Eventually Warsaw fell to the Russians and by January 1945 Poland had been liberated and the Lublin Poles were placed in control by the USSR. 2. Complete the table below: Source Despite the apparent unity of the allies (see Sources A and B), behind the scenes the West were increasingly suspicious of Stalin (see Source C). Relations deteriorated as Stalin seemed to ignore certain elements of the Yalta Agreement. The high expectations in the West that Stalin would allow democratic governments in Eastern Europe was soon destroyed when 16 leaders of the Polish Resistance were invited from London to hold talks with the Soviet authorities near Warsaw. They were arrested and never seen again. Source A Source B 3. Who gained most from Yalta?Factor 4: Potsdam, Berlin, 17th July- 2nd August 1945. a. Events before the conference Read Waugh and Wright p16-17 and make notes on the following: 1. What had changed between Yalta and Potsdam? [pic] FOCUS ON:Poland Ã¢â¬Ëjumps to the leftÃ¢â¬â¢ Poland in 1939 [marked in bold and dotted] Poland in 1945 [marked in bold and dotted] b. The Potsdam Conference [pic] [pic] [pic] At Potsdam, Truman, less inclined to trust Stalin than Roosevelt had been, also had a secret weapon; Operation Manhattan had been completed and the USA possessed a working atomic bomb. This placed Truman firmly in control of the negotiations: Ã¢â¬Å"Truman was a changed man. He told the Russians where they got on and off and generally bossed the whole meetingÃ¢â¬ (Churchill, writing about the conference later) Atlee Truman Stalin Using three colours highlight or underline the following: (1) Areas of agreement between the allies; (2) ideas rejected by the West; (3) ideas rejected by Stalin; Exam Technique Part B Question Ã¢â¬â KEY FEATURES You will need to identify a key feature and develop it with more detail/analysis 1 developed key feature = 4 marks 2 developed key features = 5 marks 3 developed key features = 6 marks A key feature is one of three things: A CAUSEÃ¢â¬ ¦AN EVENTÃ¢â¬ ¦A CONSEQUENCE Ã¢â¬ ¦ so do three paragraphs with one of each or two of one and one of another! Remember to number and signpost with the wording of the question. Use the word BECAUSE. Briefly explain the key features of the Yalta and Potsdam conferences, 1945 (6) Paragraph 1: One cause of the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences wasÃ¢â¬ ¦This meant thatÃ¢â¬ ¦Paragraph 2: A key event of the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences wasÃ¢â¬ ¦This meant thatÃ¢â¬ ¦Paragraph 3: A key consequence of the Yalta and Potsdam Conference was Ã¢â¬ ¦This meant thatÃ¢â¬ ¦Factor 5: The Development of the Iron Curtain, 1945-8 Read Waugh and Wright page 21-23. As the Red Army liberated much of Eastern Europe, Stalin made sure that in the post-war reorganisation most of these countries would be under direct Soviet influence, or at the very least friendly Communist countries. Step by step he took over Albania, Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and East Germany in a process described by the Hungarian Communist Rakosi as Ã¢â¬Ëslicing salamiÃ¢â¬â¢, or salami tactics (slowly removing or slicing away all opposition to Communism). Why did Stalin do this? Source A: The devastated landscape of Stalingrad- Russia suffered greatly as a result of the war. 27 million Russians died. Source B: Stalin speaking in February 1945 Victory means, first of all, that our Soviet social system has won. The Soviet social system has successfully stood the test in the fire of war and it has proved its complete vitality. The Soviet social system has proved to be more capable and more stable than the non-Soviet social system. The Soviet social system is a better form of society than nay non-Soviet social system. Source C: Stalin at Yalta Mr. Churchill has said that for Great Britain the Polish question is one of honour. But for the Russians it is a question of honour and security. Throughout history Poland has been the corridor of attack on Russia. Source D: Stalin comments on ChurchillÃ¢â¬â¢s Iron Curtain speech in 1946 It should not be forgotten that the Germans invaded the USSR through Finland, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary. The Germans were able to invade because governments hostile to the USSR existed in these countries. As a result the USSR suffered a loss of life several times greater than Britain and the USA combined. The Soviet Union can not forget the huge sacrifices of the Soviet people. Is it surprising that the Soviet Union is trying to see that governments loyal to the Soviet Union should exist in these countries. 1. Complete the table below. U [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] Factor 6: Winston ChurchillÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËIron CurtainÃ¢â¬â¢ Speech Nine months after Sir Winston Churchill failed to be re-elected as BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s PM, Churchill [with President Truman] traveled on March 5, 1946, to Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri (population of 7,000). Churchill gave his now famous Ã¢â¬Å"Iron Curtain speech. Before this speech, the U. S. nd Britain had been concerned with their own post-war economies and had remained extremely grateful for the Soviet UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s role in ending World War II. It was ChurchillÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, which he titled Ã¢â¬Å"The Sinews of Peace,Ã¢â¬ that changed the way the democratic West viewed the Communist East. Though many people believe that Churchill coined the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"the iron curtainÃ¢â¬ during this speech, the term had actually been used for decades (including in several earlier letters from Churchill to Truman). ChurchillÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the phrase g ave it wider circulation and made the phrase popularly recognized as the division of Europe into East and West. 1. Why do you think did ChurchillÃ¢â¬â¢s words contribute to further East-West tension? 2. Annotate the cartoon below to explain its meaning. Exam Technique Part B Question Ã¢â¬â KEY FEATURES You will need to identify a key feature and develop it with more detail/analysis 1 developed key feature = 4 marks developed key features = 5 marks 3 developed key features = 6 marks Briefly explain the key features of the Iron Curtain. Cause:Event:Consequence:Revision and Overview Effect on relations between the Allies Event 1939 Nazi Soviet Non-Aggression Pact Britain and the USSR are enemies, USA is neutral but leaning towards Britain. 1941 Nazi invasion of USSR The USSR changes from an enemy to an ally against the common threat of Nazi Germany. Little direct co-operation. 1944 Ã¢â¬ËLublin PolesÃ¢â¬â¢ set up West suspects USSR of a desire to create buffer zone of puppet Communist states 1944 Warsaw Uprising 1945 Liberation of Poland 1945 Yalta Conference 1945 Failed discussions with Molotov concerning Polish government 1945 Arrest of Polish Resistance leaders 1945 Death o f Roosevelt Ã¢â¬â Truman 1945 US completion of Manhattan Project 1945 Potsdam Conference 1946 Iron Curtain Speech, made by Churchill at Fulton, Missouri Focus on: Learning through Mnemonics: CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR [memory word: BARE] [pBeliefs: ic[pic] Russia was (3 things) ] [pic] a Communist country, [pic] ruled by a dictator [pic] who cared little about human rights. [pic] America was (3 things) [pic] a capitalist [pic] democracy, [pic] which valued freedom. [pAims: ic[pic] Stalin wanted (2 things) ] [pic] reparations from Germany [pic] a buffer of friendly states. [pic] Britain and the USA [led by President Truman] wanted (2 things) [pic] to help Germany recover [pic] to prevent large areas of Europe from coming under Communist control. [pResentment about history ic[pic] The USSR did not trust Britain and the USA (2 reasons) ] [pic] They had tried to destroy the Russian Revolution in 1918. [pic] Stalin thought they had not helped the USSR enough in WW2. [pic] Britain and the USA did not trust the USSR (1 reason) [pic] Stalin had signed the Nazi-Soviet pact in 1939. [pEvents ic ] Ã¢â¬ ¦.. and in case you are wondering: EVENTS Ã (9 events): [pYALTA Conference (4 things) ic[pic] February 1945 ] [pic] Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt agreed to (5 points): [pic] Divide Germany into 4 zones occupied by France, Britain, USA, USSR. [pic] Hold free elections in Eastern European countries. [pic] Give the USSR territory in Manchuria in return for their help against Japan. [pic] Set up the United Nations. [pic] Set up a government of Communists and non Communists in Poland. [pic] On the surface, everything seemed friendly [pic] Tension behind the scenes [pPOTSDAM Conference (4 things) ic[pic] July 1945 ] [pic] At Potsdam the tensions surfaced. [pic] Stalin, Truman and Atlee agreed to (2 things): [pic] Bring Nazi war criminals to trial. [pic] Divide Germany into 4 occupied zones. [pic] There were also disagreements over (3 things): [pic] Soviet policy in Poland. [pic] The size of German reparations. [pic] StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s demands for a naval base in the Mediterranean. [pSALAMI TACTICS (2 things) ic[pic] 1945Ã¢â¬â48 ] [pic] Ã¢â¬ËSlice-by-sliceÃ¢â¬â¢, Stalin ensured 7 Eastern European countries had Communist governments. [pic] Albania [pic] (1945) Ã¢â¬â the Communists took power after the war without opposition [pic] Bulgaria [pic] (1945) Ã¢â¬â the Communists executed the leaders of all the other parties. [pic] Poland [pic] (1947) Ã¢â¬â the Communists forced the non-Communist leaders into exile. [pic] Hungary Ã (4 things) [pic] (1947) Ã¢â¬â Russian troops stayed there. Stalin allowed elections (non-communists won a big majority). The Communists were led by the pro-Russian Rakosi. [pic] Rakosi demanded that grou ps which opposed him should be banned. [pic] He got control of the police, and arrested his opponents. How to cite Breakdown of Wartime Alliance, Essay examples
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
For this reason a process consisting of thorough primary and secondary research was carried out. We analyzed the data on EFU from the internet and had a detailed meeting with Mr. Altaf Baig Hear Human Resource department at EFU who provided us with all the details. Throughout this process we got many experiences by witnessing ourselves the corporate pay structures and incentive plans. We would like to help you whenever you require our skills and would like to offer you, in case you need us, in interpreting this report or a section of it. In EFU medical facilities are given to each and every employee from staff level to the executive level. Initially the medical bills are collected and then they are forwarded to the CMO (Chief Medical Officer) for his verification and signature. After the bills are verified payment vouchers are made. All employees including their families are entitled for reimbursement of OPD expenses against production of actual bills. We will write a custom essay sample on Rewarding Function at Efu or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page There is a certain limit of medical expense which varies according to the designation. Travelling Allowance: By Air For the company trips all employees from Vice Presidents to Managing Directors are entitled to go for First class when going for an airline. All employees having designations ranging from Junior Officers to Assistant Vice Presidents and regular employees are entitled to use Economy class when going for an airline. Managing Director all other Executives are entitled for economy class when travelling abroad. Entitlement given via train All company officers are allowed A/C sleepers whenever they use train as a mode of transportation. Personal or Company maintained Car If a personal car or a company maintained car is used for travelling from one city to another in a condition where neither air or train facility is available then personal car is given to the employees and petrol expense would be reimbursed. No air, train, or vehicle facility Reimbursements will be made for actual expenses for the purchase of bus tickets and receipts if issued. In case no ticket or receipt is issued, employees will be required to submit an undertaking giving relevant details. Technical allowance Technical allowance is given to the technical staff of the company which is approximately 5% of their basic salary. Utility Allowance The company reimburses utility bills of all Assistant Vice Presidents and above level employees. There are different policy conditions for different designation levels. Employees having designations of Executive Directors and above get the full amount of utility bill paid from the company. Employees in the designations of Assistant Vice President get a maximum amount of Rs. 30000 reimbursed for their utility bills paid. Entertainment Allowance: All the employees having designation of Vice President and above get entertainment allowance of 6% of their basic salary, For Executive and above grades, employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ spouses and children are also provided with health insurance and life insurance policies free of cost. Sick Leaves All the permanent employees have a quota of 10 sick leaves available in a year. Conclusion EFU rewards policies are generally at par with main competitor and much better than other companies in the insurance business, however, a review is required in comparison to other industries such as banking sector where pay packages are much more than insurance industry. EFU needs to review salary and compensation policies and eliminate the disparity as some of the banks have also started insurance business e. g. PICIC, UBL, etc. which at later stage might give tough competition and attract experienced employees by offering superior pay package. EFU needs to formulate new pay structure as per the sources the company is following a very old pay structure that needs to be amended and the company should provide more power and importance to the HR department as presently the main power lies with the finance department.